Most people think when the term schizophrenia is used, they are referring to two personalities in the one body but this is NOT the casewith this severe and sometimes disabling disease. There are many different types of schizophrenia, but most patients who are diagnosed with this condition, have mood and behaviour changes that seem bizarre to others. They often change the topic of conversation for no apparent reason, may not look after themselves, become dishevelled in appearance, withdrawn, and fail to communicate properly with others.Schizophrenics often believe that people are trying to persecute them. They may hear unfriendly voices, or have frightening hallucinations.
Schizopherenia Introduction :
Mental illness which causes the sufferer to have a distorted view of the world because of delusions and hallucinations.
Schizopherenia Cause :
No one knows exactly what causes schizophrenia, but there are many theories. There is certainly a family tendency in developing the disease. If your parents, or brothers or sisters have the disease, it is more likely, but by no means inevitable, that you could develop symptoms.Another factor is the environment in which the patient is raised. Family, school or work stresses, particularly in early childhood, may lead a person to escape these stresses by developing schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a chronic disease that requires long term treatment, and in that way it is no different to asthma, high blood pressure or diabetes, except it is the brain that is involved.
Schizopherenia Incidence :
As many as one person in every 200 will be treated for a form of schizophrenia at some time in their life.
Regular exercise and stretching before participating in sports decreases your risk of back pain.
Strengthening exercises build stronger muscles that can support the back. Stretching increases flexibility and decreases the risk of injury. Swimming and water exercises are non-weight-bearing, and put little stress on the back. In addition to toning muscles, exercise helps keep weight off.
Maintaining good posture and body alignment, lifting properly, losing weight, and quitting smoking will help prevent back pain
Rely on the legs to provide the majority of strength and support when lifting heavy objects. Keep your back straight and well-supported when sitting or driving.
Doctors rely on results of a physical exam and the patient's description of the pain, including when it began, when making an initial diagnosis.
You will be asked to walk, stand, bend, and sit while the doctor carefully watches your movement and range of motion. The doctor will feel your spine, check your reflexes, and look for weakness, changes in sensation, or for other abnormalities. If symptoms persist, additional tests may be ordered depending on your age, complaints, and medical history.
Blood tests and a spinal x-ray are typically ordered in patients under age 20 or over age 50, or if there has been trauma to the spine, a history of substance abuse, cancer, prolonged steroid use, weight loss without dieting, pain that increases at night or when resting, or if signs of neurological problems are present. X-rays and other tests generally are not called for unless the pain persists for more than a month or special circumstances exist (you have had trauma to the back, cancer, extensive drug use, or other problems).
Computed tomography (CT scans), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and x-rays of the spine often show abnormalities, even in people who do not have symptoms. CT scans can prove helpful in diagnosing spinal stenosis or bone abnormalities. MRIs can show tumors, disc problems, cysts, and other abnormalities. Blood tests can also help determine if an infection or tumor might be causing the pain. A bone scan can indicate the body's responses to a fracture, tumor, or infection.Depending on the symptoms and physical exam, the doctor will determine a course of treatment.
Being out of shape and having poor posture increase the risk of experiencing back pain.
The muscles and the skeleton work together to maintain proper body structure and balance. Weak muscles cannot contribute to this relationship effectively, making the skeleton, primarily the spine, bear the burden of supporting the body. This makes the spine overworked and more likely to suffer an injury.
People whose jobs require heavy or repeated lifting, expose them to vibrations from vehicles or machinery, or require prolonged driving are at increased risk for back problems.
Obesity, or carrying more body weightespecially around the abdomenputs additional stress on the spine and the discs that cushion the vertebrae.
Being overweight is unhealthy for many reasons. It puts strain on your heart, puts you at greater risk for some types of cancer, and can make back pain worse. Talk to your doctor about weight loss if you have a bad back and are overweight.
For women, breast weight can add significant stress on the back, neck, or shoulders that can result in pain.
Breast reduction surgery has helped many women ease their back pain. However, it is a good idea to explore other possibilities before opting for surgery. Strengthening the back through exercise, losing weight, or changing bad postural and lifting habits may help, and should be addressed first.
While the reasons are unclear, smoking increases your odds of suffering from back pain. Some sports, including football and cross-country skiing, can put you at additional risk.
Mild-to-moderate exercise can help back pain, so if your activity of choice puts strain on your back, find another one. It is not a good idea to become immobile. You are less likely to develop back pain if you are strong and active.
Degenerative disc disease occurs more frequently with advancing years as the cushioning discs dry out.
The center of the disc (nucleus pulposis) contains more than 85% water in children. However, by the time you are 80 years old, only about 60% of the water remains. Eventually, the disc space becomes smaller, and the vertebrae, left without their cushion, rub against each other and put painful pressure on the surrounding nerves.
Gender, race, and age all contribute to back pain.
Neck pain occurs more often in older adults, while Reiter's syndrome (which causes inflammatory back pain) occurs most frequently in young men. Ankylosing spondylitis (another cause of inflammatory back pain) is more common in men and Caucasians. Osteoporosis, a bone-thinning disease that can lead to painful fractures, is common in older women.
Emotional stress, depression, substance abuse, and psychological problems can make pain symptoms worse.
Your doctor will have suggestions if you suffer from emotional difficulties. Do not be afraid to bring these issues up during an office visit. Most people experience psychological distress at one time or another in varying degrees of severity.
Back pain can vary from a dull ache to severe, disabling pain. Back pain may be acute, meaning it comes on suddenly for a brief period of time. Chronic back pain persists for more than three months. Ankylosing spondylitis typically starts during the late teen years or early adulthood as a chronic, dull pain in the lower back. The pain may be accompanied by early-morning stiffness relieved with mild activity or a warm shower.
Cold temperatures and dampness may aggravate symptoms. Hip and jaw joints and the eyes may become involved. Patients may experience systemic symptoms, such as fever, poor appetite and general malaise.
Spinal stenosis often causes leg pain that occurs when walking or standing and decreases when sitting or lying down Sciatica, a painful condition caused when the very large sciatic nerve is compressed between two vertebrae, is associated with pain in the buttocks and legs. The pain may radiate down to the calf or foot, often with a tingling sensation
The exact cause of back pain is sometimes difficult to determine.
The pain may originate in the muscles, connective tissue, bones, discs, or nerves. Because the back is such an intricate mechanism, it may be a while before your doctor has an exact explanation for your pain. It may take several visits to the doctor to understand the cause if your symptoms are not going away.
Most cases of back soreness are the result of strain on poorly conditioned or overused muscles, or an imbalance between the back's support structures. Muscle tension or spasm, back sprains, ligament or muscle tears, and joint problems can cause pain as well.
Seemingly minor movement can cause back pain. Even a sneeze or cough can force a disc to extend beyond its normal boundaries. When a disc slips out of its proper position, it can put pressure on a nearby nerve, causing pain in whatever part of the body that nerve is connected to. In addition, back pain can arise indirectly from other body systems. For example, a foot or knee injury can cause a person to limp, which forces weight to be distributed differently. This places strain on leg and back muscles, and can make your back hurt.
Injuries, age-related changes, deterioration of bone or tissue, inflammation, infections, tumors, inherited disorders, and skeletal and muscle problems can all cause back pain.
A sudden, hard fall or blow can sprain the ligaments.
A common injury from a car accident is whiplash, which happens when the neck is wrenched violently. Whiplash causes pain and stiffness in the neck. In 70% of patients, the condition will resolve within two to three months.
Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by brittle bones, can cause the vertebrae to become compressed and fracture. The rheumatic disease fibromyalgia causes aches, pain, and tenderness in the muscles and soft tissues around the spine.
Problems with other organs can sometimes cause back pain. Kidney stones, for example, can make the lower portion of the back near the waist feel sore.
Degenerative disc disease causes back pain. This disease occurs most frequently due to injury or deterioration of the disc space
Doctors often consider degenerative disc disease to be a wear and tear disease. As the space between the vertebrae narrows, the disc can bulge, protrude, or extrude and irritate nerves, resulting in pain radiating down the leg or arm. A common result of degenerative disc disease is a condition called sciatica. This happens when the sciatic nerve in the lower back is irritated or compressed, which causes pain or numbness in the leg. About 10% of those with back pain experience sciatica. Coughing, sneezing, straining, and other activities that put additional pressure on the spine can increase the pain and numbness of sciatica. Nerve compression can also cause muscle weakness and a tingling sensation in the leg.
Spinal stenosis can cause serious and debilitating pain It may require surgery.
Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the opening through which the spinal cord runs. This narrowing is most often caused by arthritis, and therefore is most often found in older people. If the narrowing becomes severe enough to put pressure on spinal nerves, patients may develop low back pain, buttock pain, leg pain, and/or numbness in the above areas. The pain may be most noticeable while walking. Patients with severe stenosis often cannot walk more than one city block before feeling pain. Bending forward can sometimes relieve the pain temporarily. Spinal stenosis may be caused by other factors such as injuries, infections, tumors, or congenital abnormalities.
Inflammation of the spine can lead to disorders called spondyloarthropathies.
Spondyloarthropathies are inflammatory diseases that cause severe pain in the joints. Ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis, and arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease are all a specific types of this condition. Doctors have not yet determined exactly what causes these conditions. There is a genetic link, however, and people who have the disease in their family are more likely to develop the disease themselves. The body responds to a trigger in an abnormal manner, and the immune system reacts with inflammation. However, scientists do not know yet what this trigger is.
A common complaint, back pain occurs in about 80% of Americans at least once. Any area of the back may become sore, but the lower back (the lumbar region) and the neck (the cervical area) are most prone to pain.
Half of working-age adults experience back pain every year, but only 15% to 20% seek medical treatment. Back pain is the second most frequent cause of pain complaints, after headache. More than half of those with sore backs will have another episode within a few years. Chronic back pain has disabled approximately 1% of the US population, and it is the most common cause of disability in people younger than 45.
Back pain costs the US between $20 billion and $50 billion dollars annually, which includes treatment expenses and the cost of lost productivity in the workplace.
Back pain is often crippling enough to cause absenteeism. Twenty percent of work-related injuries and illnesses are attributed to back pain. Most back pain subsides within four to eight weeks.
Within one month, about 90% of patients suffering from low back pain will be able to resume normal activities. Stiffness and pain in the back of the neck due to mechanical or muscular causes typically lasts for a short period of time and responds to rest and over-the-counter anti-inflammatory or pain-killing drugs.
The spine is one of the most complex components of the human body, and therefore is very prone to different types of pain or injury
The spine (backbone) is a column of small bones called vertebrae. Between the vertebrae are cushions called discs. Ligaments hold the vertebrae together, and tissues called tendons bind the vertebrae with the muscles of the back. Pain can result from even minor problems with the vertebrae, discs, ligaments, tendons, or muscles.
One of the jobs of the backbone is to protect the spinal cord. The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs through the center of the vertebrae and connects to the base of the brain. The spinal cord acts as a message pathway by which the brain sends signals to rest of the body. Back pain can result if a bone or a disc that has shifted pinches a nerve. The pain can also occur in the part of the body to which the nerve is connected.
Most back pain responds to a few days of rest and mild painkillers. If your pain does not, it could be a sign of something other than a sore muscle. Talk to your doctor about any pain that is chronic and does not respond to initial treatment.